Tapayuna





Tapayuna
Lengua amenazada. 




Otros nombres: Beiço de pau, Suyá Novos, Suyá Ocidentais, Kajkwakratxi
Área geográfica: Brasil. MT
Población: 160 (Ropkrãse Suiá e Teptanti Suiá, 2010)
Familia lingüística: Ge, Macro-Ge.



Introducción:
Hay 241 pueblos indígenas censados en Brasil. Una cuarta parte de ellos no llega a los doscientos miembros cada uno, lo que les supone una situación extremadamente frágil y vulnerable, con grandes posibilidades de extinción en un futuro no muy lejano. 


Lengua 
El Tapayuna, también conocido como Suyá Occidental, es una lengua prácticamente idéntica a la de los Suyá Orientales. Sin embargo, hay evidencia de que estos dos idiomas, si bien son similares, tienen diferencias entre sí. El Tapayuna parece ser  una variante dialectal del Suyá. Sin embargo, la falta de estudios sobre la lengua Tapayuma , entorpece el conocimiento entre las similitudes y diferencias existentes en los dos idiomas.



Los Tapayuna tuvieron un contacto considerable con los Kisedjé por lo que su lengua experimentó gran influencia de las lenguas habladas por estos pueblos.
Historia y Revitalización:
Sometidos al desgate por su contacto con otros pueblos de lengua mayoritaria (Mebengokre o kapayó), diezmados por las sucesivas invasiones (incluso el envenenamiento de sus aguas), inconscientes del intrusismo de otras lenguas y los escasos estudios existentes sobre el Tapayuma (Seki, Rodrigues, Camargo), fueron incluidos (a partir de 1997) en el “Curso de Capacitación para Profesores Mebengôkrê, Panará y Tapayuna”. Entre los objetivos del curso estaba estimular el trabajo con las lenguas indígenas, contando con la asistencia de los lingüistas, y la valorización de la cultura tradicional. Para eso, se contó con la participación de las personas mayores y los líderes de cada grupo. Ellos relataron mitos, hablaron sobre la historia del pueblo, sus tradiciones, y la importancia de mantener su lengua y su cultura. Con desigual acogida los Tapayuna se recusaron, pues no querían identificarse como tales y rechazaron el trabajo con su lengua, expresando el deseo de aprender portugués y otros asuntos relacionados con el mundo de los no indígenas. No fue hasta el año 2000 en que comenzaron a interesarse por su lengua, pidiendo un asesor lingüístico.



Actualmente son los jóvenes los impulsores del aprendizaje del Tapayuna , deseosos de desarrollar proyectos orientados a su recuperación.




Censo y área geográfica:
Los Tapayuna viven desde mediados de la década de 1980 en el Parque indígena de Xingú y en las tierras indígenasWavi y Capoto-Jarina (de los  Kapayó). Diferentes estimaciones, entre 1967 y  1995, cifraban   su población entre 70 y 400 nativos. En el año 2006, de acuerdo con la encuesta demográfica realizada en las aldeas de la Tierra Indígena Wawi,  por Kamani Kisêdjê habían 57 personas Tapayuna o con ascendencia mestiza de Tapayuna y Kisedeje. Y en la Tierra Indígena Capoto-Jarina, en la margen izquierda del río Xingú, había 98 personas en 2010.
De acuerdo con estimaciones realizadas por Ropkrãse Suiá y Teptanti Suiá, los Tapayuna sumaban cerca de 160 individuos en el 2010, incluyendo las poblaciones de las dos tierras, Wawi y Capoto- Jarina.

 

Festival of Xingu Cultures 


The  Indigenous Leaders from the Xingu Indigenous Territory in Brazil, send a message to the Brazilian government about their culture, their rights, their aspirations and the needs of their people.
.Note: The original letter is in Portuguese.
 


Letter:
Ipavu Village, June 12, 2011
Ladies and Gentlemen, authorities and indigenous leaders, indigenous teachers, caciques, shamans, youth, children, women and every participant in the community 50 years of Xingu culture. We, the 16 ethnic groups in the Xingu Indigenous Territory, hello to all present.
In these 50 years of the creation of the Xingu Indigenous Park (PIX), a process that involved important people, such as Noel Nutels, Eduardo Galvao, Darcy Ribeiro, Getulio Vargas and Janio Quadros among others, brought up the struggle of indigenous peoples of the Xingu, which always preserved the rivers, forests, and their own wisdom to live in harmony. They have valued their own culture and shown their wisdom to white man, their way of living in their territory peacefully shared with nature. The vision of non-Indian society looking at them as if they are unable, is wrong.
(Those who understand us) would, of course, be very sad today to see the construction of dams, tourism clandestine, deforestation, pollution, silting of rivers. Today we no longer have the Villas-Boas brothers to advise us and help us deal with and have influence with the elite in power, so we strengthen our own leaders.
Fortunately we have managed to obtain the rights to our territory, although at the time the politicians aimed to transform the park into a human zoo and the name "Indian Park" shows the idea they had. Right now, we want to emphasize that our land can no longer be called the Xingu Indigenous Park, but the Xingu Indigenous Territory (TIX). Listen and understand the indigenous reality the way it deserves, with the recognition of wealth and socio-cultural diversity it represents. Land, gentlemen, to the political world or the white man, as it is said, represents the land as ground, as fragments that do not represent the territory.
When we are talking about "Indian country", we are defending our territorial rights meaning not parcels of land but the rivers, forests, air and educational, cultural and linguistic diversity. Amazonian Indians speak out for their rights.
The great Indian warriors who fought here have ensured the future we see today because when no-one talked about indigenous education, they were fighting to understand the new language which came from outside and thus defend our rights. If we look back 50 years, it is not too far from our reality, but it makes us reflect on the past, present and future and set an example and show that without water, river, forest, without land as our ground and land as our territory, without all this diversity, there would be no indigenous society. There would be no languages, cultures, nor the peoples of the Xingu. The wealth of our territory is the reason we are alive, fighting to ensure the future of younger generations of the Xingu.
Our territory is full of significance, we respect our territory in the same way that we respect the elders, the father and mother. Everything has meaning for us, everything has an owner, the river has an owner, also the lakes and trees, plants, medicinal herbs, an owner in a spiritual or physical form.
Finally, we honor the people who are not with us anymore, Xingu: Nahui Kuikuro, Luis Kuikuro Piomin Kayabi, Prepori Kayabi, Da'a Juruna, Bibina Juruna, Pawaide Juruna, Aluar Trumai, Iawaritu Trumai, Nitywary Trumai, Ywalapiti Kanata, Amarika Kamaiurá, Piaru Trumai.
We want to celebrate yet, some very important people who are alive and who have contributed much to the existence of the Xingu Indigenous Territory: Marawi Kayabi, Aruiawi Trumai, Megaron Txukarramae, Raoni Txukarramae, Sapaim Kamaiurá, Takuma Kamaiurá, Aritana Yawalapiti, Kuiussi Kisêdjê, Melobo (Arrack) Ikpeng.
Here we are struggling at the present time and looking to the past to think about the future of our children and ensure the continuity of our languages, cultures, knowledge and ancient wisdom that the non-indigenous society wanted to take - both of our feet, our hands and our power for good or ill, do what they want with our area and are already doing to nature, through deforestation, pollution, dams, Belo Monte ... All in the name of what they call progress and development of the country's Growth Acceleration Program.
Amazonian Indians speak out for their rights. It is a future ecological disaster, nature and spiritually respond phenomenally, because nature is the life we breathe.
Authorities, we want our territories to serve as an example of environmental, territorial, cultural and linguistic preservation. We respect progress and development, but want to be respected the same way that you have regard for your parents, your children, your friends and your home. The Xingu Indigenous Territory is our home, is our freedom to share with family, friends, animals, air, water forest, and the festivities. The territory of the Xingu does not belong to one people, but the 16 ethnic groups with different languages and cultures, it is not the same as a plantation, or business owner of large acres of land.
We want to maintain the participation and recognition of youth, women, children and elders of our land.
With these words, and on behalf of 16 peoples who inhabit the Xingu Indigenous Territory,
We, the indigenous leaders of the Xingu, hereby send our message.
Signing this letter all the participants of the First Festival of Xingu Cultures in the village
Ipavu on days 10, 11 and 12 June 2011.


Fotos: Flickr,

Derechos de autor Todos los derechos reservados por Y IKATU XINGU  

Fuentes consultadas:
Linguamón
Pib.socioambiental.org
Pueblosoriginariosenamerica.org

Comentarios

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